Untitled
– View on Path.

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dendroica:


The Bushwren (Xenicus longipes), Bush Wren, or Mātuhituhi in Maori, was a very small and almost flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. It grew to about 9 cm long and 16 g in weight. It fed mostly on invertebrates which it captured by running along the branches of trees. It nested on or near the ground.
It was widespread throughout the main islands of the country until the late 19th century when mustelids were introduced and joined rats as invasive mammalian predators. The only authenticated reports of the North Island subspecies (X. l. stokesi) since 1900 were from the southern Rimutaka Range in 1918 and the Ureweras up to 1955, with probable sightings on June 13, 1949, near Lake Waikareiti, and several times in the first half of the 20th century in the Huiarau Range, and from Kapiti Island in 1911 (Edgar, 1949; St. Paul & McKenzie, 1977; Miskelly, 2003). Apparently, the last population lived in the area where Te Urewera National Park was established, ironically just around the time of its extinction.
The last authenticated reports of the South Island subspecies (X. l. longipes) were from Arthur’s Pass in 1966 and Nelson Lakes National Park in 1968. There have been a few unsubstantiated reports since then from Fiordland and Nelson Lakes.
The third subspecies, X. l. variabilis or Stead’s Bushwren, was found on Stewart Island/Rakiura and nearby islands. It is known to have survived on Stewart Island until 1951 (Dawson, 1951) but was probably exterminated by feral cats. It lived on Kotiwhenua (Solomon) Island, being reasonably common, until the early 1960s. It survived on predator-free Big South Cape Island until Black Rats invaded it in 1964. The New Zealand Wildlife Service attempted to save the species by relocating all the birds they could capture. They caught six birds and transferred them to Kaimohu Island where they did not survive and died in 1972.
The species is probably extinct but it is not impossible that it survives.

(via Wikipedia)

dendroica:

The Bushwren (Xenicus longipes), Bush Wren, or Mātuhituhi in Maori, was a very small and almost flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. It grew to about 9 cm long and 16 g in weight. It fed mostly on invertebrates which it captured by running along the branches of trees. It nested on or near the ground.

It was widespread throughout the main islands of the country until the late 19th century when mustelids were introduced and joined rats as invasive mammalian predators. The only authenticated reports of the North Island subspecies (X. l. stokesi) since 1900 were from the southern Rimutaka Range in 1918 and the Ureweras up to 1955, with probable sightings on June 13, 1949, near Lake Waikareiti, and several times in the first half of the 20th century in the Huiarau Range, and from Kapiti Island in 1911 (Edgar, 1949; St. Paul & McKenzie, 1977; Miskelly, 2003). Apparently, the last population lived in the area where Te Urewera National Park was established, ironically just around the time of its extinction.

The last authenticated reports of the South Island subspecies (X. l. longipes) were from Arthur’s Pass in 1966 and Nelson Lakes National Park in 1968. There have been a few unsubstantiated reports since then from Fiordland and Nelson Lakes.

The third subspecies, X. l. variabilis or Stead’s Bushwren, was found on Stewart Island/Rakiura and nearby islands. It is known to have survived on Stewart Island until 1951 (Dawson, 1951) but was probably exterminated by feral cats. It lived on Kotiwhenua (Solomon) Island, being reasonably common, until the early 1960s. It survived on predator-free Big South Cape Island until Black Rats invaded it in 1964. The New Zealand Wildlife Service attempted to save the species by relocating all the birds they could capture. They caught six birds and transferred them to Kaimohu Island where they did not survive and died in 1972.

The species is probably extinct but it is not impossible that it survives.

(via Wikipedia)

– View on Path.

– View on Path.

instagram:

Inside the Grammy Awards on Instagram

For more photos and videos from the 56th Grammy Awards, explore the 56th Annual Grammy Awards and Staples Center location pages and browse the #grammys hashtag.

The 56th annual Grammy Awards are underway in Los Angeles, California. The show officially begins at 8PM EST / 5PM PST, but you can follow your favorite musicians on Instagram as they get ready for the show and make their way down the red carpet. For a behind-the-scenes look into the awards, check out the following accounts:

neuromorphogenesis:

Long-term spinal cord stimulation stalls symptoms of Parkinson’s-like disease

Researchers at Duke Medicine have shown that continuing spinal cord stimulation appears to produce improvements in symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, and may protect critical neurons from injury or deterioration.

The study, performed in rats, is published online Jan. 23, 2014, in the journal Scientific Reports. It builds on earlier findings from the Duke team that stimulating the spinal cord with electrical signals temporarily eased symptoms of the neurological disorder in rodents.

"Finding novel treatments that address both the symptoms and progressive nature of Parkinson’s disease is a major priority," said the study’s senior author Miguel Nicolelis, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurobiology at Duke University School of Medicine. "We need options that are safe, affordable, effective and can last a long time. Spinal cord stimulation has the potential to do this for people with Parkinson’s disease."

Parkinson’s disease is caused by the progressive loss of neurons that produce dopamine, an essential molecule in the brain, and affects movement, muscle control and balance.

L-dopa, the standard drug treatment for Parkinson’s disease, works by replacing dopamine. While L-dopa helps many people, it can cause side effects and lose its effectiveness over time. Deep brain stimulation, which emits electrical signals from an implant in the brain, has emerged as another valuable therapy, but less than 5 percent of those with Parkinson’s disease qualify for this treatment.

"Even though deep brain stimulation can be very successful, the number of patients who can take advantage of this therapy is small, in part because of the invasiveness of the procedure," Nicolelis said.

In 2009, Nicolelis and his colleagues reported in the journal Science that they developed a device for rodents that sends electrical stimulation to the dorsal column, a main sensory pathway in the spinal cord carrying information from the body to the brain. The device was attached to the surface of the spinal cord in rodents with depleted levels of dopamine, mimicking the biologic characteristics of someone with Parkinson’s disease. When the stimulation was turned on, the animals’ slow, stiff movements were replaced with the active behaviors of healthy mice and rats.

Because research on spinal cord stimulation in animals has been limited to the stimulation’s acute effects, in the current study, Nicolelis and his colleagues investigated the long-term effects of the treatment in rats with the Parkinson’s-like disease.

For six weeks, the researchers applied electrical stimulation to a particular location in the dorsal column of the rats’ spinal cords twice a week for 30-minute sessions. They observed a significant improvement in the rats’ symptoms, including improved motor skills and a reversal of severe weight loss.

In addition to the recovery in clinical symptoms, the stimulation was associated with better survival of neurons and a higher density of dopaminergic innervation in two brain regions controlling movement – the loss of which cause Parkinson’s disease in humans. The findings suggest that the treatment protects against the loss or damage of neurons.

Clinicians are currently using a similar application of dorsal column stimulation to manage certain chronic pain syndromes in humans. Electrodes implanted over the spinal cord are connected to a portable generator, which produces electrical signals that create a tingling sensation to relieve pain. Studies in a small number of humans worldwide have shown that dorsal column stimulation may also be effective in restoring motor function in people with Parkinson’s disease.

"This is still a limited number of cases, so studies like ours are important in examining the basic science behind the treatment and the potential mechanisms of why it is effective," Nicolelis said.

dendroica:


The Bushwren (Xenicus longipes), Bush Wren, or Mātuhituhi in Maori, was a very small and almost flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. It grew to about 9 cm long and 16 g in weight. It fed mostly on invertebrates which it captured by running along the branches of trees. It nested on or near the ground.
It was widespread throughout the main islands of the country until the late 19th century when mustelids were introduced and joined rats as invasive mammalian predators. The only authenticated reports of the North Island subspecies (X. l. stokesi) since 1900 were from the southern Rimutaka Range in 1918 and the Ureweras up to 1955, with probable sightings on June 13, 1949, near Lake Waikareiti, and several times in the first half of the 20th century in the Huiarau Range, and from Kapiti Island in 1911 (Edgar, 1949; St. Paul & McKenzie, 1977; Miskelly, 2003). Apparently, the last population lived in the area where Te Urewera National Park was established, ironically just around the time of its extinction.
The last authenticated reports of the South Island subspecies (X. l. longipes) were from Arthur’s Pass in 1966 and Nelson Lakes National Park in 1968. There have been a few unsubstantiated reports since then from Fiordland and Nelson Lakes.
The third subspecies, X. l. variabilis or Stead’s Bushwren, was found on Stewart Island/Rakiura and nearby islands. It is known to have survived on Stewart Island until 1951 (Dawson, 1951) but was probably exterminated by feral cats. It lived on Kotiwhenua (Solomon) Island, being reasonably common, until the early 1960s. It survived on predator-free Big South Cape Island until Black Rats invaded it in 1964. The New Zealand Wildlife Service attempted to save the species by relocating all the birds they could capture. They caught six birds and transferred them to Kaimohu Island where they did not survive and died in 1972.
The species is probably extinct but it is not impossible that it survives.

(via Wikipedia)

dendroica:

The Bushwren (Xenicus longipes), Bush Wren, or Mātuhituhi in Maori, was a very small and almost flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. It grew to about 9 cm long and 16 g in weight. It fed mostly on invertebrates which it captured by running along the branches of trees. It nested on or near the ground.

It was widespread throughout the main islands of the country until the late 19th century when mustelids were introduced and joined rats as invasive mammalian predators. The only authenticated reports of the North Island subspecies (X. l. stokesi) since 1900 were from the southern Rimutaka Range in 1918 and the Ureweras up to 1955, with probable sightings on June 13, 1949, near Lake Waikareiti, and several times in the first half of the 20th century in the Huiarau Range, and from Kapiti Island in 1911 (Edgar, 1949; St. Paul & McKenzie, 1977; Miskelly, 2003). Apparently, the last population lived in the area where Te Urewera National Park was established, ironically just around the time of its extinction.

The last authenticated reports of the South Island subspecies (X. l. longipes) were from Arthur’s Pass in 1966 and Nelson Lakes National Park in 1968. There have been a few unsubstantiated reports since then from Fiordland and Nelson Lakes.

The third subspecies, X. l. variabilis or Stead’s Bushwren, was found on Stewart Island/Rakiura and nearby islands. It is known to have survived on Stewart Island until 1951 (Dawson, 1951) but was probably exterminated by feral cats. It lived on Kotiwhenua (Solomon) Island, being reasonably common, until the early 1960s. It survived on predator-free Big South Cape Island until Black Rats invaded it in 1964. The New Zealand Wildlife Service attempted to save the species by relocating all the birds they could capture. They caught six birds and transferred them to Kaimohu Island where they did not survive and died in 1972.

The species is probably extinct but it is not impossible that it survives.

(via Wikipedia)